What is Science Fiction?
Isaac Asimov defined the term science fiction as the “branch of literature which deals with the response of human beings to changes in science and technology.” Although this is a broad explanation, it is accurate. Science fiction as a genre deals with an incredibly large variety of worlds that differ from ours in some way. This could be because of new scientific discoveries, new technologies, or different social systems. The genre itself then looks at the consequences of these changes and how societies and individuals respond to it.
How can Science Fiction Influence Us?
Stories have always engaged us as humans as they are extremely powerful; they move us, leave us in awe, and have to potential to make us think about who we are as people. Science fiction can also do all of this and even more; the most important ability science fiction have is the ability to inspire and influence. This genre promotes interest in scientific learning, and has inspired generations of scientists. Science fiction is also one of the only genres that depict how society could function differently. And by providing this social commentary, it allows us to image the future society we want and start working towards it.
Here is a short chronological list of a few science fiction novels that have inspired and influenced in many ways:
True History by Lucian of Samosata (100s AD)
A fictional novel written sometime during 100s describing travels to the Moon, the Sun, and the Morning Star (Venus). It also includes encounters of life forms from these different worlds, advanced human technology, interplanetary warfare and imperialism.
Although Lucian intended this to be a satire piece to bring to light problems in society, the novel shows how the scientific advances at the time affected the Greek imagination. Many authors cite the novel to be one of the earliest examples of science fiction, having influenced many European writers and philosophers during the Renaissance.
Utopia by Sir Thomas More (1516)
Nowadays, utopias are a widely known concept; they are communities or societies that are ideal and perfect in every way. Sir Thomas More coined the term about 500 years ago in this novel, which contains the conversation between More, his friend Peter Giles, and Raphael Hythloday, a veteran traveler.
At first, they discuss the problems with the modern society of Europe, including poverty, criminal punishment, and wars. The rest of the book deals with Raphael’s travels to a hypothetical ideal island called Utopia, describing in detail the economic, social, and political structure of the community.
The motif of utopian and dystopian conditions became reoccurring in science fiction; they focus on worlds that are seemingly perfect, but are ultimately flawed in some way.
Mary Shelley explored the potential negative effects of scientific advancements in her novels. Frankenstein looks into the consequences of creating life, and the warnings against pursuing knowledge because of its dangers. The Last Man is an apocalyptic novel set at the end of the 21st century, after a plague wipes out a great portion of the human population. It describes the ineffectuality of the medicine and science at the time, exploring the consequences if a disaster such as this were to occur. The novel is credited with being the first work of modern apocalyptic fiction.
The World Set Free by H. G. Wells (1914)
This novel has perhaps the most tangible impact on the technological world. H.G. Wells was always fascinated by new inventions. He had consistently predicted technological innovations in his novels, such as the use of airplanes and tanks in wars. In the novel The World Set Free, Wells described a new type of bomb fuelled by nuclear reactions, predicting it would be discovered in 1933 and first detonated in 1956. After reading the novel, physicist Leó Szilárd patented the idea. He was later directly responsible for the creation of the Manhattan Project, which led to the production of the first US nuclear weapons.
Neuromancer by William Gibson (1984)
William Gibson tells the story of Case, an infamous hacker hired by a mysterious organization to help with their plans. Gibson conjured up the idea of a global network of computers, incredibly close to the equivalent of the Internet. Although the early concept of the Internet already existed when the novel was written, the World Wide Web as we know it today was more than a decade away. Not only did Gibson describe the Internet, he also introduced the concept of cyberspace. In the novel, people could physically link their brain to the global computer network known as the ‘Matrix’, where data was not only visual, but also tangible. The novel considers the potential effects of the internet and commercialization of cyberspace.